金博宝体育网址 //www.glinfo.info/ EN 限制较少的“生物负载”规则将使一些火星任务变得更简单 //www.glinfo.info/news/marsbioburdens

这张火星地图根据中子光谱数据(火星奥德赛)或热红外光谱(火星气候探测器)显示了冰可能位于地表1米范围内的位置,包括火星候选洞穴目录中已知的地下接入点。灰色区域是那些缺乏红外数据并产生水当量氢(WEH)的区域中子能谱的含量低于10%。在灰色区域,顶部1米处可能存在封闭系统冰或盐水,但其丰度可能较低且分布不均匀。灰色区域可能适用于计划地下活动的任务(深度为1米)减少生物负担的要求,如果着陆点是一个保守的缓冲距离从地下接入点。< BR/>信用:A. Deanne Rogers,石溪大学,纽约州立大学。 < /P> < P> <字体> =字体家族:寒带,serif;字号:12号;“>

一份新报告今天在美国天文学会行星科学部第53届年会新闻发布会;颜色:黑色;“>由行星科学研究所高级科学家阿曼达·亨德里克斯撰写;颜色:#22222;“>。

美国国家科学院、工程院和医学院的报告确定了一些标准,这些标准允许机器人在火星上某些位置执行任务,但“生物负载”要求限制较少,旨在防止火星上的地球微生物造成有害污染。

“行星保护委员会是美国国家科学院空间研究委员会的一个常设委员会,其任务是由美国宇航局编写一份报告,讨论可用于指定火星上任务着陆区域的标准,该区域的生物负载要求不如目前的要求严格。目前,满足行星保护要求要求——例如,使用严格的消毒技术——可以被视为强制、昂贵和复杂的要求,在某些情况下,这些限制可以简化和现代化,这有助于让火星的某些区域更容易接近,”撰写该报告的委员会联席主席亨德里克斯说。

亨德里克斯说:“报告提出了实现行星保护实施现代化并提供灵活性的技术。实现这一点的一种方法是利用风险管理方法,这种方法可以根据各个任务的需要进行调整。”。“委员会的发现可以通过放宽行星保护要求,同时对进入潜在居住区保持谨慎,从而使商业和政府更容易接近火星的部分区域。”

在这份报告中,委员会将重点放在火星上那些如果由未严格消毒的航天器访问可能不会受到负面影响的区域。对于不进入地下的任务,这些区域可能包括火星表面的很大一部分,因为紫外线环境是如此的杀生,以至于陆地生物在大多数情况下,r金博宝体育网址e不太可能存活超过一到两个SOL或火星日。对于进入地下(低至1米)的任务,预计火星表面下有小块或没有水冰的区域也可能由航天器访问,因为这种小块的ce is likely not conducive to the proliferation of terrestrial microorganisms.

The report finds that it is imperative that any mission sent to Mars with reduced bioburden requirements remain some conservative distance from any subsurface access points, such as cave openings. Furthermore, though less stringent than current requirements, these missions with relaxed bioburden requirements would still need some level of cleanliness, which could be achieved for instance using standard aerospace cleanliness practices.

“The whole purpose of planetary protection protocols is to minimize the risk of harmful contamination; this means minimizing the risk of introduction of terrestrial biological material that could confound future life detection experiments. This is really important in the case of Mars,” Hendrix said. “At Mars we know that the surface is almost certainly uninhabitable for terrestrial microorganisms, due to the harsh UV environment; however, subsurface regions such as caves, shielded from radiation, could be habitable zones, for terrestrial and/or indigenous Martian life.

"The report will help in the search for life on Mars by identifying those areas on its surface for which planetary protection standards for spacecraft must be most restrictive," Hendrix said. "Also, by potentially easing planetary protection burdens in the exploration of other areas, NASA could enable more missions to Mars that help us understand the planet and its environment, even if these missions are not pursuing astrobiological studies.”

The committee’s findings apply specifically to missions for which NASA has responsibility for planetary protection. For commercial missions in which NASA has no role or connection, the U.S. government still needs to designate a regulatory agency to authorize and continually supervise space activities in accordance with the Outer Space Treaty, the report says. The study was funded by NASA.

Nov. 21
2021年11月21日星期日07:05:42+0000 菲舍尔 13729 at//www.glinfo.info
Baidu